The University of Tennessee, Knoxville


Biorefinery Site

Technical Reviews

Basics of Biofuels

Basics of Biopower

Basics of Biorefining

Basics of Pretreated Biomass

CIBER Description


Viscosity, Acidity, and Heating Value of Common Pyrolysis Oils

Elemental Analysis of Pyrolysis Oils

FT-IR Assignments of Biomass Pyrolysis Oil

Pyrolysis of Kraft Lignin

Heating Values for Pyrolysis Oil and Char

Theoretical Maximum BioFuel Yield

Ragauskas BioFuels Research Overview

Energy Basics for BioResources, BioFuels, Petroleum

Biomasss to BioFuels Primer

Fuels, Fiber and Energy: Forest Biorefinery for the Southeast

Characterization of Biomass for Thermo-Processing to BioPower & BioFuels

Bio Fuels, Chemicals and Materials - A Walk on the Green Side of Sustainability

Forest BioRefinery

Chemical Composition of Algae

Oil and Biodiesel Yield from Select Energy Crops

Biodiesel Fatty Esters

Biodiesel Production Outline

Biodiesel Fuel Precursors

The Main Chemical and Physical Properties of Fossil Fuels and Major Biopolymers

Basic BioDiesel Information


Higher Heating Values of Coals and Various Biomass Fuels

Wood Torrefaction

Basics of Wood Pellets

North America Wood Residue Demand: Pellet, MDF, Particleboard, Pulp

Pellets: 2008 Fuel Grade Standards

Chemical Thermal Properties of Wood Pellets



Overview of Larch as a Fiber Resource

Basic Chemical Properties of Bark

Characterizing Lignocellulosics from Miscanthus: Cellulose - Lignin

Biomass Chemistry of Straw: Corn Stover, Wheat, Rice and Flax

HHV and Constituents of Pine

Fundamental Biomass Chemistry of Miscanthus

Softwood-Hardwood Sugar Profiles

Juvenile vs Mature Loblolly Pine

Cellulose-Pentosan-Lignin-Ash Content Agricultural Fiber Resources

Acetyl – Methoxyl Content of Softwoods & Hardwoods

Basics of Loblolly Pine

BioResource Demand and Availability

Wood Density - Fiber Dimensions Common North American Wood Species

Southern Pine Biomass Constituents: Branches, Twigs, Needles, Bark

Wood Macroscopic Structure

Characterization and Pulping of Georgia's SW Thinning Wood Resource

Fiber Length - Fiber Width

Wood Energy -- Chemical Properties Common North American Wood Species

Tree Dimensions Common North American Wood Species

Basic Properties of HW Bark

Basic Properties of SW Bark

BioResource Chemical Composition

Metals in Bioresources

Chemical Composition of Biomass Fly Ash

Green Softwood Specific Gravity and Density

Inorganic Elements in Norway Spruce

Trace Metals in Georgia's Wood Resources and Kraft Pulps

Removal of Inorganics in Pine

Inorganics in Softwood and Hardwood

Metals Analysis Procedure for Woody Materials


Literature MW and Tg Values for Select Lignins

Lignin Derived Chromophoric and Leucochromophoric Structures And Their Associated Absorbances

Lignin Determination

MW of Lignin

Overview of Lignin Applications

Lignin Distribution in Spruce Tracheids

Phosphitylation and 31P NMR Analysis Chemical Shifts of Model Compounds Relevant to Lignin/Pyrolysis Oils/Coal Related Aliphatic/Phenoxy/Carboxylic Acids

Lignin Model pKa Values

Lignin pKa Values

SW Lignin

Elemental Analysis of Lignin

Elemental Analysis of Lignin (Reported CHO Ratios)

Lignin in Cell-Wall Layers of Softwood and Hardwood Fibers

Lignin Subunits

Lignin Overview.pdf

Typical G:H:S Ratio for Lignin from Biomass

Fundamentals of Photoaging of Lignin Containing/Mechanical Pulps

Modification of Lignin and Lignin Rich Fibers via Oxoreductase Enzymes (Laccase and Peroxidase)

Basics of Lignin Acetylation

Basics of Isolating Lignin from Kraft Cooking Liquors

Basics of UV/Vis Analysis of Lignin

Basics of Methoxyl Group Content Analysis of Lignin

31P NMR Analysis of Lignin Hydroxyl Groups

Basics of Quinone Synthesis and NMR Detection

Basics of NMR Analysis of Lignin

Determination of Laccase, Peroxidase and Xylanase Activity


Alkaline Cellulose Peeling Mechanism

Carbonyl Content of Cellulosics

Overview of the Fundamental Chemical Components of Wood Emphasis on Carbohydrates

FT- IR Analysis of Cellulose


Wood Polysaccharides Structures

Basics of Carbohydrate Analysis by High Performance Anion-exchange Chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection (HPAEC-PAD) of Wood/Fibers

Typical Carbohydrate Profile for Wood and Pulps


Lignin-based Rigid Polyurethane Foam Reinforced with Cellulose Nanowhiskers

Advanced Bio-Based Materials

Sugars to HMF and Furfural: Reaction Mechanism

Value Added Chemicals and Materials from Future Pulp Mill Biorefineries

Co-Production of Ethanol and Cellulose Fiber from Southern Pine: A Technical and Economic Assessment

Biorefinery Studies


Structural modifications of cellulose and lignin in Loblolly pine arising from the ethanol organosolv pretreatment

Characterizing Lignocellulosics from Pine to Bioethanol

Analytical Advances in Characterization of Biomass and Understanding Recalcitrance

Characterizing Sweetgum from Biomass to Bioethanol

Structural Modifications of Cellulose and Lignin in Loblolly Pine Arising from the Ethanol Organosolv Pretreatment

Crystallinity Index of Untreated and Pretreated Biomass Cellulose From Pretreatment Technologies



Metals Analysis Northern SW TMP Fiberline

Summary of ICP Metals Content for Select Kappa 30 SW Kraft Pulps

Metal Binding Properties of Kraft Lignin

Inorganic Composition Kraft Lime Mud/Green Liquor Dregs


1H NMR Spectroscopy for Lignin Analysis

Procedure for Lignin Isolation from Pulp

31P NMR for Hydroxyl Groups Spectrum of Residual Lignin

13C NMR Spectra of Residual Lignin

Residual Lignin Elemental Analysis from Kappa 30 SW Kraft Pulp

Kraft Pulping

Fundamental Review of Kraft Pulping Chemistry

Basics of Kraft Pulping and Recovery Cycle

Basics of Kraft Pulping

Hexenuronic Acids In Kraft Pulps.pdf

Fundamental Review of Kraft Pulping Chemistry

Literature Values of Chemical Species, Elemental Composition and Heating Values of North American Black Liquors

Fundamentals of Brownstock Washing

Fundamental Pulp Properties of Pre and Post O-Delignified Acacia Mangium Kraft Pulp

Fundamentals of Pulpwood Fibers.pdf

The Chemistry and Pulping of Acacia

Basic Pulp Properties

Fundamentals of Engineering Kraft and TMP Fibers

Engineering Fibers: Kraft and TMP


Mechanical Pulps

Profiling Extractives and Metals in a TMP Pulp Mill

Oxygen Delignification

Degradation Pathways for Phenolics

Oxygen delignification (OD) process chemistry for Acacia

Selectivity Improvement and Extractive Removal by Various Pretreatment Methods Prior to Oxygen Delignification for Acacia Mangium and Mixed Hardwood Kraft Pulps

Optimizing ECF Bleaching Technologies with a Mini-O

Relative Reactivity of Lignin Model Compounds under Oxygen Delignification Conditions

Mini Oxygen Stages for SW Kraft Pulps: More Delignification with Less Capital

Evaluation of Hexenuronic Acids in US Kraft Pulps

Pulp Properties Influencing Pa & Oxygen Delignification Bleachability

Typical Process Conditions for Oxygen Delignification of SW Kraft Pulps

Extended Oxygen Delignification of High Kappa Kraft Pulps

Integrated Kraft Pulping and Oxygen Delignification by Art J. Ragauskas


Exploring and Exploiting The Fundamental Chemistry of Laccase

Laccase Mediator Systems Biobleaching - Process Parameter Studies

Mill Designed Laccase-Biobleaching Technologies

The Path Forward to Practical Nascent Laccase Biobleaching Technologies

Modeling Laccase Biobleaching

Laccase Mediator Delignification of Kraft Pulps

Laccase Biobleaching Kraft Pulps by A.J. Ragauskas.pdf

Ozone Bleaching

Ozone Bleaching Highlights

Chlorine Dioxide

Relationship between Residual Lignin Structure and Reactivity to ClO2 Pulp Bleachability

Overview Of Titration For Calculating ClO2 And Cl2 Concentrations In ClO2

General Consideration/Chemistry of ClO2 Generation

Basics of Chlorine Dioxide Bleaching

Comparisons of Oxidant Reinforcements in Alkaline Extraction of ClO2 Delignified Pulp

Vapour Phase Chlorine Dioxide Bleaching SW and HW Kraft Pulps

HW High Efficiency ClO2 Delignification: Process Studies


Catalytic Peroxide Bleaching

Hydrogen Peroxide Bleaching Fundamental Overview

Improving Peroxide Bleaching of Kraft Pulps

Basics of Peracetic Acid Bleaching Kraft Pulps

Fundamental Overview of Peroxide Bleaching

Metals in TMP and Bleached Kraft Pulp

Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide Bleaching on Fiber Charge

ECF Pulps

Modern Pulp Bleaching Basics

Comparison of AOX Generation Between Chlorine Dioxide Stages and Bleaching Stages Containing Combination of Chlorine Dioxide and Ozone

Basics of ECF - TCF Bleaching Kraft Pulps

Fundamentals of Bleaching Chemistry Hexenuronic Acids – HW Kraft

ECF Bleaching HW Kraft Pulp

Basics of Bleaching Chemical Pulps

Basics of Pulping Bleaching: Environmental Concerns

Modern ECF Pulp Bleaching by Art J. Ragauskas

Strength Profiling ECF Kraft Pulps

Bleaching Chemicals and Their Properties

Optimizing the Bleaching of Georgia's SW Thinning Kraft Pulp Resource

SW Kraft Fiber Strength Retention

Hexenuronic Acid Contents of SW Kraft Pulps Under Various ECF and TCF Bleaching Sequence

Typical ECF SW Kraft Bleaching Sequence Conditions

ECF Bleaching of SW Kraft Pulp

Improving the Bleachability of Hardwood Pulps

Kraft ECF Bleaching Generation and Control of Oxalic Acid

Measurement of Bleaching Yield by Carbohydrate Analysis

Experimental Guidelines for DE* Laboratory Bleaching

Measurement of Color on Recycled and Bleached Recycled Paper

Contact Angle Measurements on Paper

Basics of Bleach Effluent Molecular Weight Determination

Recycled Paper

Primer on Bleaching Recycled Fiber


Mechanical Pulps

Cold Plasma Enhanced Wet Strength for TMP and Kraft Pulps

Fundamentals of BCTMP Brightness Stabilization

TMP Properties

Comparison of Kraft and Thermomechanical Pulp (TMP) Fibers

Kraft Pulps

Profiling Acid Groups and Carbonyl Groups in Commercial Pulps

Comparison Of HW Kraft Sheet Strength Enhancement By C-PAM and C-STARCH

Modern Fiber Engineering

Laccase Fiber Modification of SW Kraft Linerboard

Dielectric Barrier Discharge - Cold Plasma Modification Pulp Fibers

Fiber Engineering-Fiber Modification

Bleached Kraft Fiber Length/Coarseness

Wet Fiber Deformability

Basic Fiber - Sheet Properties

Fiber Charge for Wood, TMP and Kraft Pulps

Structural Characteristics of Paper

Hornification vs. Fiber Charge

Investigations into the Basics of Fiber Fiber Bonding

Degree of Polymerization for Kraft Pulps

Cellulose Crystallinity Index for Various Kraft and Mechanical Pulps

Tensile Strength of Paper

Routine Paper/Pulp Testing Protocols Employed by Ragauskas


Bonding Fillers for SW Bleached Kraft, Linerboard, Folding Carton, and Newsprint

Fundamental Papermaking Filler Properties

Enhanced Energy Savings in Papermaking with Modified Fillers

Advances in Filler Engineering

New Bonding Fillers for Paper and Board

Security Paper

Is That Real? Identification and Assessment of the Counterfeiting Threat for U.S. Banknotes. Committee on Technologies to Deter Currency Counterfeiting, National Research Council (2006).

A Path to the Next Generation of U.S. Banknotes – Keeping Them Real. Committee on Technologies to Deter Currency Counterfeiting, National Research Council (2006).

Art J Ragauskas was part of the Committee on Technologies to Deter Currency Counterfeiting, Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES that produce these two reports

Superabsorbent Cellulosics

Improved Water Absorption of Kraft Fibers and Nanocellulose Whiskers and Balls

Sulfonation of Kraft Pulps for Enhanced Water Absorption

Cellulose Based Hydrogels and Absorbents

New Cellulosics

Green Nanocellulosic Barriers

Rigid Polyurethane Foam/Cellulose Whiskers Nanocomposites: Preparation, Characterization and Properties

Select Cellulose Whisker Preparation Techniques

Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Cellulosics

Dimensions of Cellulose Nano Whiskers Prepared Under Different Sulfuric Acid Hydrolysis Conditions

Overview of Nanocellulose

Nanotechnology Potential in Forest and Paper Industry

Natural vs. Man-Made Fiber Properties

US Forest Products Sector Overview

New Fibers - New Paper

Nanotechnology for the Forest Products Industry - Vision and Technology Roadmap
Art J Ragauskas was part of the Organizing Committee

The Center for Innovative Biomaterial Education and Research (CIBER) is directed at addressing key material science/chemistry/biochemistry parameters that limit greater exploitation of biomass for biopolymers and biomaterials.  This multidisciplinary team is chartered to develop:

The objective of CIBER is two-fold: (1) to educate professionals and the general public on the opportunities and science of converting biomass into innovative biomaterial: (2) develop new technologies that will provide valuable and practical biomaterials from biomass. These new materials will have broad applications in the packaging, transportation, and health care industry, and will displace the need for nonrenewable, petroleum-based materials currently employed.  The need to develop new materials from bio-based feedstocks has seen increasing national importance as acknowledged in Presidential Executive Order 13134, titled “Developing and Promoting Bio-based Products and Bio-energy.”  This order challenges the research community to develop new materials derived from renewable biomaterials. The research deliverables of this proposal will be of prime value to the U.S.A. forest products industry that ranks among the top ten US manufacturing industries.


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